Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is a life skill that every Scout should know. It's a basic life support skill comprising of two techniques: Artificial Respiration and Artificial Circulation.
- CPR for Everyone - in the Covid-19 Setting
- CPR for Everyone - in the Covid-19 Setting (isiXhosa)
- CPR for Everyone - in the Covid-19 Setting (isiZulu)
By the Resuscitation Council of Southern Africa (updated 2021).
Artificial Respiration refers to breathing on behalf of your casualty. This means for a person who cannot breathe for themselves, you become a mouthpiece that that activates the lungs' function. This is done through the ventilations directly to the casualty mouth or nose in extreme conditions.
This refers to pumping a casualty's heart to circulate the blood when the heart has stopped. This is done through a series of compressions to the chest.
When should CPR be done?
CPR must only be given to a casualty under the following conditions:
- No breathing
After determining what happened to your casualty examining the casualt, if you find that there is no breath, start CPR immediately.
- No circulation
If there's no sign of a pulse/heart-beat, then CPR must be started immediately.
This means you only start CPR on condition that one of the fundamentals signs of life is absent.
Start with your scene management
4H's: Hands, Hazards, Hello, Help
Check for hazards: anything that can harm you or the person should be moved away.
Identify yourself get permission to assist them: "Hello I am <name> and I know first aid. Can I help you?"
Determine the condition of your casualty, and call for help.
Check for signs of life
Airway: using Head tilt chin lift open the airway.
Breathing check if your casualty is breathing by placing your ear just above the mouth and nose and look over the casualty's chest for 5-15 seconds.
Circulation check for a pulse.
If B&C are not present start with CPR immediately
Begin with Chest compressions (30)
- Place your (strongest hand) palm of your hand in the center of the chest, then use the other arm and interlock the arm.
- Leaning square over your patient, make sure you lock your arms. Press hard and press fast.
- Ensure thats you are not too fast or too slow keep to a constant rhythm.
- After you have done your 30 compressions give 2 ventilations. Give two breaths to your casualty. Use a mouthpiece.
- Follow The ratio (30:2) over 2 min.
- Continue CPR for 5 cycles then check for breath.
- Continue to do CPR until medical help arrives.